Abusers Win Custody- How Could This Happen?

Systematic failures in family court have failed to protect the victims of domestic violence, and their children. Too often allegations of abuse are ignored or minimized, putting children’s lives at risk. Even when children come forward to bravely reveal abuse, they are ignored. 

Victims of domestic violence often are unable to secure adequate legal help because they lack the funds or they have spent or sold everything they have in attempt to protect their children. Public resources are stretched thin, turning away the needy. Other Legal Aid offices close due to lack of funding. As a result, many parents go to court with inadequate or no legal representation and are greatly disadvantaged; and consequently lose custody of children.

This is happening in every state of our nation, in all socio-economic backgrounds, and to those with squeaky-clean backgrounds. It is a crisis that perpetuates abuse even as the victims of abuse attempt to rebuild their lives. 

                  Facts about Family Court Failues to

Protect Victims of Domestic Violence and their Children:

Forms of Emotional Battering”…Threats to Harm or Take Away ChildrenOne of the most common reasons given for resuming an abusive relationship is the fear that the abuser will act on the threats of taking the children from the victim. Studies show that batterers have been able to convince authorities that the victim is unfit or undeserving of sole custody in approximately 70% of challenged cases.”  American Judges Association “Domestic Violence Publication” Educational booklet that provides  judges with critical information about the Court’s responsibility to protect the safety and the rights of victims of domestic violence.  http://aja.ncsc.dni.us/publications/domestic-violence.html

“…According to one conservative estimate, more than 58,000 children per year are ordered by family courts into unsupervised contact with physically or sexually abusive parents following divorce in the United States…”. — “Child abuse: when family courts get it wrong”, by Kathleen Russell, cofounder and staff consultant to the Center for Judicial Excellence in Marin County, CA. The Christian Science Monitor, http://www.csmonitor.com/Commentary/Opinion/2009/1014/p09s02-coop.html

“Yes, there has been a tragic trend in our family court system to take parental rights away from good mothers and give it to sociopathic abusive fathers…There are several reasons good Mothers lose custody and the top of the list is the unfortunate reality of financial status. Fathers that have the money to take a custody battle into the family court system for several years, usually (approximately 80% of the time), wins full custody and the Mother, not only loses her 50% physical custody, but loses her parental rights, as well.” —Tragic Discrimination by our Family Court System of Good Mothers while our Children Pay the Price by Irene Watson, M.A.: http://www.bloggersbase.com/literature/tragic-discrimination-by-our-family-court-system-of-good-mothers-while-our-children-pay-the-price/

“..fathers are more likely than mothers to intentionally lie (21 percent, compared to 1.3 percent). In fact, abusive parents are more likely to seek sole custody than nonviolent ones, and are successful about 70 percent of the time.” Custody Crisis: Why Moms Are Punished in Court. http://uaadvnewsblog.blogspot.com/2010/01/national-child-custody-crisis-why-are.html

 

“Family courts often do not consider the history of violence between the parents in making custody and visitation decisions. . . . Psychological evaluators not trained in domestic violence may contribute to this process by ignoring or minimizing the violence and by giving inappropriate pathological labels to women’s responses to chronic victimization. Terms such as “parental alienation” may be used to blame the women for the children’s reasonable fear of or anger toward their violent father.” [pg 100] 1996 Report of the American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Violence and the Family. http://www.stopfamilyviolence.org/ocean/host.php?folder=63&page=442 

 

Although difficult to believe that such horror exists in America today, thousands of children have been, and still are, taken away from their protective parent and placed with their abusers, by court orders…

We lost our home, pets, toys, friends, our childhood. We lived in fear, depression, hopelessness and helplessness for years. Some of us ran away from our abusers. Some could not handle the trauma and committed suicide.
We have been mentally, physically, sexually, verbally, emotionally, and psychologically abused by court order. We have been misrepresented by court-appointed attorneys; facts were falsified or twisted by court-appointed evaluators; we were forced through mind-games (brain-washed) by court-appointed counselors to be silent about the abuse. Neither our voices, nor the voices of our protective parents, were heard…Judges and court appointees turned on our protective mothers with a vengeance. They refused to allow our mothers to present evidence or witness testimony to prove that our fathers had abused us, and refused to listen to anything we, the victims, had to say about being abused. We who survived, got older and stronger. Now we are telling the world how much we were hurt, first by our abusers and then by the court that refused to protect us.” Courageous Kids Network. .http://courageouskids.net
 
The vast majority of these mothers (97%) reported that court personnel ignored or minimized reports of abuse. They reported feeling that they were punished for trying to protect their children and 65% said they were threatened with sanctions if the “talked publicly” about the case. In all, 45% of the mothers say they were labeled as having Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS). The protective parents reported that the average cost of the court proceedings was over $80,000.Over a quarter of the protective parents say they were forced to file bankruptcy as a result of filing for custody of their children. Eighty-five percent of the protective parents surveyed believe that their children are still being abused; however, 63% say they stopped reporting the abuse for fear that contact with their children will be terminated. Eleven percent of the children were reported to have attempted suicide. Myths That Place Children At Risk During Custody Litigation”. Dallam. S. J., & Silberg, J. L. (Jan/Feb 2006). Leadership Council. Sexual Assault Report, 9(3), 33-47. http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/cust_myths.html  
 

“Abusers are smooth talkers who are good at manipulating situations to their liking, she said, even with law enforcement. When officers first respond to a domestic call, the victim is often hysterical while the abuser is calm and cool, and so he sometimes makes a better impression on officers.” –Statistics on domestic violence tell a sobering tale, Crookstone Daily Times. By Natalie J. Ostgaard, City Editor (10/31/08). http://www.crookstontimes.com/articles/2008/10/31/news/24news4.txt

“Unfortunately, many men resort to using their children as weapons against their current or ex-partners. A man may belittle and undermine his partner in front of the children. He may threaten to take the children away or gain custody by claiming his partner is an unfit mother. Sometimes he threatens the children’s lives; sometimes he carries out those threats…because of the bitterness of the failed relationship or as a tactic to get what they want, men make custody threats. Some do it under the guise of love for their children, others base it on rights as a father. For most women, the thought of losing their children is extremely distressing. Men who batter have told me they exploited these fears..” — “Violent No More: Helping Men End Domestic Abuse.” by Michael Paymar, (p. 77). Hunter House, Inc.: Alameda, CA, 2000.

Many men who coercively control their partner use children as weapons to get at her, control her, and keep her in her place..Men who use coercive control against their partner, know the woman’s vulnerabilities. The love and protection that many women have for their children is one area that those men use after separation to continue coercive control.” — “Power & Control Wheel, Tactic #11 – Using the Children” by Clare Murphy, PhD. 04/11/2013. http://www.speakoutloud.net/power-and-control/using-children#comment-589

27 Responses to Abusers Win Custody- How Could This Happen?

  1. kim says:

    My daughters mother and boyfriend abused her. Cys went today to do dependency to give my primary physical and she won even though they abused the baby broke the safety plan. I have been fighting since she was abused at 8 weeks of age. I cant protect her what am I suppose to do know.one will help.

    • M21 says:

      Kim-

      My heart breaks for you… I think a big part of the problem is that there is so much secrecy that most people do not realize there is so much corruption in the Courts. And professionals working in/with the Courts are not adequately educated or trained on the issues–and often become a part of the problem themselves.
      I also feel like no one will help.. but I will keep fighting and keep telling the truth.
      You have my prayers.

  2. Diane says:

    My family law court case started in March 1993, in Humboldt County, California when I filed for divorce from the father of my two sons (ages 5 years and 3 years old at that time). They are now 26 years and 23 years old. I have been denied any/all contact with them since October 1995 when their father gained custody of them in a hearing held that I’d not been informed of. When I filed for divorce, he was on probation and had 3 pending felony charges and 2 pending misdameaner charges, all for Domestic Violence. The GAL, Sherlyn Dancer Davis, appointed to our sons (by Judge Buffington) did absolutely nothing with “the best interests of our sons” considered. Its been almost 20 years now that I’ve been denied contact.

    • Emily Court says:

      Diane: So sorry for all you have been through, family court is hell on earth when the judges are corrupt and its officers work in their own best interest, not that of your family or your child.

      You are not alone in this–family court corruption and abuses of power are happening all over the United States and even in other countries across the world.

      I think a part of the problem is the family court gives the power and opinion of the judge as being greater than the rights of parents, and even the law. The judge has almost unlimited power, and there is very little accountability in the courts. I also think there is financial incentives and politics behind the scenes that drive the court, rather than law or evidence.

      And help for victims of family court, I am finding is hard to find. A woman can go to a battered women’s shelter or organization for counseling, support groups, parenting classes, legal resources etc. That can be very helpful.

      Some churches also offer support, I heard of a class called GriefShare that is pretty well known. GriefShare offers support for those grieving the loss of a loved one with regular meetings and structured lessons to help cope with the loss, and to facilitate healing. They also send encouraging daily e-mails: http://www.griefshare.org/
      Find a GriefShare Group: http://www.griefshare.org/findagroup

      You do have to be careful, and use discernment when reaching out to others for help. There seems to be some conflicts between the groups offering help to mothers in family court, and even some bullying perpetrated by fellow advocates. My thoughts on this are that it is important to keep your information as private as possible, and also take the time to get to know the support/advocacy group and its members to see if it fits your needs.

      Some tips about online safety and using internet forums can be found at Custody Prep for Moms:
      http://www.custodyprepformoms.org/supgroups.php (tips below)

      Warnings: If you are in the middle of litigation, and are worried about how things you say can be used against you in court, practice a great deal of caution on the Internet. Your movements on the internet can be tracked. While e-mail and the Internet are useful for communication and learning about domestic violence, child abuse, sexual assault and custody litigation they can also lead to breaches in your privacy.

      Here are some recommendations for safer use of internet support groups:

      1) Do not subscribe or post to any list that has open archives. This means any list where old messages can be accessed by list members or the general public. Each Yahoo group will identify their list protocols so you can assess that situation.

      2) Do not subscribe or post to any list that is frequented by father’s rights groups or advocates. If you are not sure, lurk for awhile. Generally, lists that support PAS, shared parenting agendas, mandatory joint custody laws, etc. will attract father’s rights proponents. Some of these people have been known to post messages from one group to another group with the intention of harassing the original poster, flaming people off-list, falsifying e-mail addresses to look similar to yours and then making inflammatory postings, etc.

      3) Consider using an anonymous account or screen name for your postings if the list owner/moderators will allow it and you feel it necessary to protect yourself or your case strategy.

      4) Do not subscribe to any support list that does not conduct some screening for its members.

      5) Do not post on public Internet message boards.

  3. Your posts on Family Court Robs Children of their Identity and American Indian Children Cultural Genocide is excellent. I would like to link to your blog.

    However, I have put significant effort into three comments (so far), all of which were honest and in good faith, informative, and accurate. Not one passed moderation. Meanwhile, you are quoting, posting, and promoting groups I PERSONALLY know have done more to facilitate mothers losing custody of their children to batterers, than any single abuser with his wealth could have possibly done. Many of them have engaged, as possibly you are, in censorship — but with a view towards participating in the federal grants schemes which are PRIMARY in influencing these same courts.

    Which makes me wonder who EmilyCourt really is, although apart from this, I have absolutely no other reason not to believe your personal case history. BUT the fact remains — it’s private, and none of us can verify it without knowing you personally.

    What I provide for mothers who have left abusers (and I am one, absolutely) is information that they, and anyone else, can verify objectively — tools to find out who is influencing the courts. With this OBJECTIVE (and not victim-focused) information they can go, and are going, to their legislators and staying STOP THAT FUNDING!.

    Why would you ever quote organizations who know about fatherhood.gov, and the impact of welfare reform (1996) on the safety of any and all women who flee domestic violence, and enter a child support order, or even accept public assistance — but won’t teach others? Is information only true if there is a professional’s name and a nonprofit name attached to it?

    With respect, but sorrow….

    Let’s Get Honest. Battered Mother 1990s, Family Court Case (consolidated with attempt to renew a restraining order) 2002, child-stealing overnight ON a court-ordered visitation and intentionally facilitated by law enforcement 2006 (destroying my work life thereafter), forced back to Food Stamps in: 2008, 2010, and now 2012 by family member involved in the family law case.

    PS. I am fighting for survival!!!, and reporting on dangerous conditions in the courts. Can you not give others a choice, at least? Publish a comment, or a link to my blog. Over 260 followers and well over 150,000 visitors re: over 600 posts just might not all be wrong….

    Kathleen Russell is not a mother She is a talented public relations professional with a BA in psychology from UC Berkeley, progressive, green, and primarily interested IMHO in Kathleen Russell, first and foremost.

    The “Center for Judicial Excellence” was started with a $90,000 allowance by another foundation in Marin County, and wasn’t the best at filing its initial tax returns. Not ONCE have they reported on the events surrounding 1996 welfare reform, which is ESSENTIAL to understanding the family courts as they are now, and why women are really losing custody to very bad fathers.

    Their current (or recent) “Our Broken Family Courts” agenda is no more in battered mothers’ best interests than any previous one was. It’s 2014, and while they have connections, clout, and apparently an increasing budget — some of us have the truth, and read tax returns. And as I have committed to telling the truth as best I can, this is the year also I am going to expose this entire, DIS-honest crowd attempting to carve out their profession at taxpayer expense, and at the expense of many basic truths they know, but continue to censor.

    If you do not publish this comment, I still know the blog moderator will have seen it. Of course all bloggers have discretion over what’s published or not. But at another level, once you have heard, then you are responsible for what you do with notice — and I’ve just put you on notice. If I have no response in some time, I’m going to chalk it up to “not who she appears to be.” If you are indeed the “EmilyCourt” as described above, then go look at Maryanne Godboldo’s case in Detroit; the same social worker attempted to break up (and did) another intact family — and the purpose is to get children onto pharmaceuticals. The purpose is profit. Kids are being used to test drugs and courts are being used to test behavioral modification (systems change) on the population as a whole. It is NOT just about individual families.

    Bloggers who continue to publish mis-leading information while censoring right-on information, are part of the problem. I will continue while still alive and kicking to put it forth as intact as possible and lead people to source information (Read Tax Returns!).

    If you want to discuss this, comment on my blog. We will, however, discuss it openly in the comments fields and not my private inbox.

    • Emily Court says:

      Hello Let’s Get Honest. Thank you for your feedback. I apologize for the delay in posting your comments, I was dealing with serious medical issues and not the internet until recently. If you look, you will see that I have posted your comments.
      I am open to feedback and discussing issues, the only reason I would not post a comment is 1) personal case information or information about a minor child was revealed or 2) the comment was abusive. The reason for the delay had to do with my health, not you personally. If someone did not publish your comment, I know that would be frustrating–especially since you put so much thought into it, but it is not fair to attack the blogger or call them names because it is up to them to decide what to publish and why.
      I am not aware of the people you mentioned, but if they wish to respond, then they are welcome to do so.
      Regards, Emily Court (Family Court Injustice)

      • Thank you for explaining the delay. I’m also responding belatedly because I’ve been swamped with survival issues relating to the aftermath of my own abuse case, which some family members became involved in. This was from the start an economic war, not just psychological and abusive, and it was about money, not in the long run about the children.

        Feel free to sign, or publicize, as this situation has me long-term on food stamps and at least two daughters at risk from an immediate family member, my sister. http://www.thepetitionsite.com/takeaction/167/243/583/

        The language you use to describe any problem frames the answers you will get. Even though abusers ARe getting custody, I recommend (instantly) dropping that language, as it’s feeding into a closed-loop of circular reasoning. I left abuse in 1999, the overnight custody-switch happened in 2006, and as a survivor of this AND with some insight into just how useless it is to talk “abuser” with each other — as hard as that sounds — you MUST get a handle on who set these courts up, and for what purpose.

        http://familycourtmatters.wordpress.com = my blog. See Table of Contents (and if you have $5 or $10 to spare, the Donate button on there) Where others burnt out, after being ignored in THEIR time about reporting on these matters, someone had to pick it up. I did this and developed, and now am about to burn out again. Who’s going to pick it up next? Anyone?

        10 years before both of us (I read you did, and I know I did) lost contact with our children (at different stages in this game), it was set up at the federal level through the HHS grants system and other means, which relates PRWORA, WELFARE REFORM. I learned about this only in 2009 after having realized what good (none) the “abusers getting custody” crowd did for others (including my own children) and what harm (significant) promoting that conversation for free does to EACH next generation of children funneled through the family courts, which IF they are going to admit violence occurs, will not do so for free, but at taxpayer expense. The primary abuse is economic; the child abuse simply facilitates it. It’s the public’s funding of it that has to stop….. and to do that the public has got to change its focus and learn something about their own government. I did this under extreme conditions, so I know anyone COULD.

        Here’s the “Family Court Enhancement Project” I see mentioned elsewhere on this blog.
        http://www.ncjfcj.org/FCEP. I know EXACTLY where that’s coming from, and faking concern. I will address separately. If one has at least a few clues, checking things out (instead of just citing to them without understanding) is very simple, it’s just a change of habits to bother.

        I have done a lot of research on and am networked with many people in Minnesota over the years. You were chosen as a target state for some of these practice in the 1980s, and the same groups are doing the same things over 20 years later, and people are still tuning out those reporting on it. Unbelievable.

        But not everyone is, and that’s what gives me hope. See those blogs. Here’s a facebook reference also, I’m networking with people in several states on exposing system operations. If any group talks to you about 58,000 children a year — walk away. Your time will be wasted and the information is censored of foundational information leading to insight on the courts.

        https://www.facebook.com/JeanPfannNotaPrivateMatter

        Have a nice day and I hope you have recovered from any medical issues.

      • Emily Court says:

        Thanks Let’s Get Honest/Jean- So sorry for what you have been through. You have my prayers. Your efforts to keep fighting for your children, and for all family court victims, is not in vain.

        Great point about the financial aspects of domestic violence, and how the court system itself is powered by special interests and funding sources.

        Great point also about the language used when communicating the issues, it is especially true when taking an advocate position or going to court. Sometimes it makes you want to gag that you have to be politically correct or use words that don’t seem to describe the horror you are living through… but sometimes it’s what you have to do to develop communication and establish networks. I am all for a night out with friends or going to a safe and confidential support group to vent and “be real”. It’s a balance of taking care of yourself and fighting a battle as a soldier on the frontlines.

  4. Pingback: Abusers Win Custody- How Could This Happen? | Moms' Hearts Unsilenced

  5. Thank you, Emily, for gathering the quotes in this post as well as revealing how unjust our justice system is. How confusing it must be for kids who see the court system side with an abusive parent! They learn that lies win. I was shocked when the judge in my case (Judge Jackson of Lauderdale Co., Ala.) refused to even take the time to look at hard evidence. The evidence I had would not have even been needed if the Lauderdale Co. DAs office had not rid the underage porn turned over to them by a forensic computer expert who discovered it on my ex’s personal computer in his office of the real estate school my ex owns. The assistant DA at the time was my ex’s business partner’s (of another real estate business) son-in-law. Physical abuse is not a tactic my ex uses with our daughter — but make no mistake: he is adept at maintaining psychological control & terror, a tactic he learned from his dad who still has him & his sister alienated from their mom. My daughter harms herself, but child protective services won’t respond to any evidence or testimony, either. My daughter is psychologically punished when I make any attempt to protect or see her — & any attempts I make thru the system are not only in vain, but add to the alienation. I am not afraid to speak out. I am more afraid not to. What more can they do to me? Bring it on. Like MLK, we can write letters from jail. But on a more realistic note, we are all in different circumstances & the child’s age, etc., affects how that child & the system responds to our efforts. Some may need to be quiet, but what I’ve found is perfect obedience does not facilitate justice in the least. I followed court orders, my ex did not & does not, & he won. I won’t be silent anymore. He told me to stop sharing (educational — it was not personal) info on Parental Alienation on my personal Facebook page; if there’s one thing I’ve learned, it’s to do the opposite of what my narcisstic ex wants, especially if he threatens me — acquiescing brings on more psychological & financial abuse. Good luck with your communication efforts.

  6. nanette says:

    My sons ex had him assaulted and battered for no reason. She is abusing the children like she abused him for five years. She has custody. She lies about every single thing. Now my grandaughters can’t come over or see daddy. The system doesn’t work for the children

  7. j says:

    can someone please tell me how to file a formal complaint against Hennepin county judge and family court system. all my rights were stolen from me. I had a dv background with my ex and we went through court and he won! I had no criminal history and took care of my child by myself afterwards and even though he has priors and armed robbery he won. g.a.l and custody evaluator wrote false reports and even court summary papers for my judge before we even had court. in court the judge carelessly stated she wa+ +hildhood bffs with the opposing lawyer. I need help can someone please help me help my child.

  8. maria says:

    I am with you and in silence. Only one more year and she turn 18 then we are free.
    and the truth will be revealed.

  9. Pingback: Abusers Win Custody- How Could This Happen? | Exposing The Darkness

  10. J says:

    My wife and step-kids are victims of the system. I just wish there was something I could do to make things better for them; or make this right. I will never truly understand the horrors that happened to them but yet I see the residual effects of what happened to them daily, and their medical professionals see it also; yet there isn’t anything we can do. So I will continue to be a loving husband and a true daddy to these kids to mitigate as much as I can while still trying to find a solution.

  11. I was a victim of abuse. When I left my ex husband he took my children, and still has them! He has had them both on Prozac and Vyvanse since they were six years old. I recently launched a petition for my children to come home. https://www.change.org/p/call-for-investigation-into-the-ouachita-parish-family-court-system

  12. secretangel says:

    The struggles for victims of abuse continue through the courts as they are victimized again in many cases. I pray that the laws will change to protect these victims and these children. Too many children are forced into the hands of their abusers by the very courts that are supposed to protect them. Thanks for bringing awareness to this problem.

  13. It is a federal program started to purposely override state laws that protected women and children from abuse. My book and website contain the proof. Available on Amazon “Motherless America” Confronting Welfare’s Fatherhood Custody Program” http://www.MACCAbuse.org
    http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Dstripbooks&field-keywords=motherless+america%3A++confronting+welfare%27s+fatherhood+custody+program

  14. Meg says:

    I, just today, lost in court to my ex-husband and abusive father/spouse. I am wondering what to do? What next step can sing take to get this terrible ruling reversed? Are there options/help?

    • Emily Court says:

      Hello Meg- I can not offer legal advice because I am not an attorney. You may want to talk with a DV organization or legal professional for help, or to ask about an appeal. I can help look for resources, and will keep you and your family in prayer. I am saddened to hear your experience. You have our support and understanding. xo

    • Mia says:

      This just happened to me as well. Maybe we can help each other. Any ideas are grateful! 😕

  15. Mia says:

    This recently happened to me, I need help but can’t afford it. If anyone knows of someone that can help me get custody of my 5yr please let me know!

  16. Ali says:

    My granddaughter has been put through hell by her mother & older half sister. She has been sexually, physically & emotionally abused for over 2 years & she’s only 5. A forensic nurse & a child psychologist have testified on her behalf & recommended to the judge that my son, her daddy, get full custody & that the mom needed medication & therapy for multiple mental issues. CYS was cited by state human services for not responding or investigating reports by strangers on 3 different occasions, on behalf of my granddaughter. CYS was called by the school, & 2 complete strangers that witnessed the abuse of my granddaughter, in public places. CYS Supervisor then showed up at our custody hearing & testified for the mom because the citations made her look bad. The judge sided with the mom & actually took custody away from my son, for trying to protect his daughter. The judge gave 50/50 custody to parents that live in different counties, much less different school districts, for a child that starts school in less than a year. Which is the least of her misconduct.
    My granddaughter cries & screams every time she has to return. Her mom tells her daddy doesn’t love her anymore, regularly. There is no safety plan or counseling because mom refuses to allow my granddaughter to go & refused the safety plan before the court hearings.
    We are beside ourselves with grief & have to watch her being abused, without being able to do anything.
    If anyone can help us, or has a suggestion, we would love to hear it. My son works for our local borough & is state certified in waste water mgmt. with a degree in business mgmt. His wife is a nurse for a local doctors office & they have a daughter together that is now 18mos. She is being traumatized by this also. They are good people that only want what’s best for my granddaughter.

  17. I live in Europe and have had no idea about the problem you talk about in this article. I thought only here (Bulgaria) the court is unfair and the humanity means nothing. The world must be better place… I hope everyone have justice in their lives…

Comments are welcome on FCI. We appreciated thoughtful and respectful comments/feedback that offers a variety of views. Any view or opinion represented in the blog comments are personal and belong to the respective commentor. This blogger reserves the right to moderate comments for suitability and may remove or edit comments that contain abusive or offensive language, images, links or accusations. Comments may also be removed if they contain personal information, identifying information or sensitive details about your location, case, minor children, those involved in your case. Please do not post full articles from other sites, as it could be a violation of copyright or intellectual property laws. Thanks for visiting!!

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